LESO is able to use an inflow condition turbulent inflow generated from a precursor simulation instead of the standard periodic boundary condition. This allows LESGO uses to simulation developing flow over wind turbine arrays or arrays of cubes, etc. The concurrent precursor simulation (CPS) module provides the framework for implementing this inflow condition.
Traditionally, when using inflow data from a precursor simulation, it is required that a complete simulation be conducted before the target simulation can be performed. During the precursor simulation the inflow data would be sampled and periodically written to file. Subsequently, this inflow data would then be read in by the target simulation. While this approach is conceptually simple, it does have several drawbacks
Only one simulation is performed at a given time, i.e., must have the data from the precursor simulation before the target simulation can be executed.
May require significant disk space for large simulations.
Requires significant I/O which may be a hindrance for good computational efficiency.
Must coordinate the precursor simulation with the target simulation to ensure enough inflow data for the target simulation.
To alleviate these issues, the CPS module performs the precursor simulation concurrently with the target simulation. Conceptually the approach is the same, except of writing the sampled inflow data from the precursor simulation to file it is copied in memory directly to the target simulation using MPI. Since both simulations are executed simultaneously, there is no waiting for the precursor simulation to complete and direct memory copies remove the I/O overhead both in speed and storage space.
In the CPS module the precursor simulation is conducted in the ‘producer’ domain and is called the ‘red’ domain. The target simulation occurs in the ‘consumer’ domain which is labeled the ‘blue’ domain. MPI communication between these domains and within themselves is controlled by defining appropriate MPI communicators.
At the start of the simulation the “MPI_COMM_WORLD” communicator is split into two local communicators “localComm” where the ‘red’ and ‘blue’ each have their own. lesgo then takes the local communicator and create a communicator called “comm” using the MPI Cartesian topology functions. The communicator “comm” is used for all MPI communication within the ‘red’ or ‘blue’ domains and is the intracommuncator for these domains. The “comm” communicator is also used for standard MPI with CPS turned off, which results in no special treatment for point-to-point communication when using CPS.
For communication between the ‘red’ and ‘blue’ domain an intercommunicator “interComm” is created. It essentially builds a communication bridge for each process in the ‘red’ domain to communicate with the corresponding process in the ‘blue’ domain.
When using the CPS module, the simulation is executed as multiple program, multiple data (MPMD) paradigm. Therefore, the simulation is launched with “N” process and “N/2” get assigned to the ‘red’ domain and the other “N/2” are assigned to the ‘blue’ domain. Within the global “MPI_COMM_WORLD” communicator, the domains have global ranks assigned to them such that 0 to N/2-1 is given to the ‘red’ domain and N/2 to N-1 is assigned to the ‘blue’ domain. Once the local communicator “comm” is created each domain has the local ranks 0 to N/2-1 assigned to each of the processes. The intercommunicator then takes these local ranks and maps rank “n” from ‘red’ to rank “n” in ‘blue’ creating the bridge for copying the inflow data.
There is a capability to shift the domain in order to eliminate the streaks. This option will shift the domain to the side of the precursor domain.
The first step is to build in the CPS support into lesgo by setting
USE_MPI true USE_CPS true
in “CMakeLists.txt”. You will need to build in CPS support for both the ‘red’ and ‘blue’ domain executables. Other support may be built for required functionality but at a minimum CPS is needed. An example for this is the setup for developing flow over a wind farm using the actuator disk model. In the ‘red’ domain we’d have standard boundary layer flow so we’d set
USE_MPI true USE_CPS true
as above and build the executable. Then we’d also need to include the wind turbines module for the ‘blue’ domain so we’d set
USE_MPI true USE_CPS true USE_TURBINES true
and build lesgo.
Once the executables are built you can then setup your cases. For now we’ll call the executable for the ‘red’ domain “lesgo-red” and the one for the ‘blue’ domain “lesgo-blue”. Each domain will need it’s own run directory so you’ll have to create these; we’ll call these directories “red” and “blue”. The executables should then be placed in their respective run directory. A copy of the input file “lesgo.conf” will have to be place in each of the run directories.
Now the input files have to be configured. The number of processors should be set what will be used for each domain. So, for example, if each domain will use 4 processes, then
nproc = 4
in “lesgo.conf” for both cases. When submitting the job, you have to request the total number of processes being used. Continuing with the example you have to request 8 process if the ‘red’ and ‘blue’ domains use 4 each. The next important setting is the inflow flag “inflow”. For the red domain it must be set to
inflow = .false.
where the ‘blue’ domain will use
inflow = .true.
To provide the inflow condition while numerically still using periodic boundary conditions, a fringe method is applied. The fringe method is a well established technique for forcing the velocity field to the desired, sampled field over a small region called the fringe region. There are several settings which control the location and size of this fringe region.
One constraint of the CPS module is that the grid spacing of the ‘red’ and ‘blue’ domains must match. The domain lengths can be different, but the grid spacing must be the same to ensure accurate results. Another constraint is that because these simulation are synchronized, the same value for “dt” must be specified unless dynamic time stepping is used, then the same CFL value should be used for both domains.
The specifics on launching the simulation depends on which MPI implementation is used. This is discussed below, assuming we are using executables named “lesgo-red” and “lesgo-blue” and run directories “red” and “blue” for the “red” and “blue” domains, respectively, with a total of “N” processes.
MPICH2 launch command
mpiexec -f <nodefile> -wdir red -n <N/2> ./lesgo-red : -wdir blue -n <N/2> ./lesgo-blue
When running, all diagnostic information is written to standard out with no specific order.
Stevens RJAM, Graham J, Meneveau C. “A concurrent precursor inflow method for Large Eddy Simulations and applications to finite length wind farms.” Renewable Energy 68 (2014). 46-50.