The LES flow solver uses a pseudospectral discretization in the longitudinal and spanwise directions (x and y, respectively) and second-order centered finite differencing in the wall-normal (z) direction. The equations are the filtered N-S equations in the high-Re limit in which molecular viscosity effects are generally neglected. An eddy viscosity closure model is applied for the sub-grid scale stresses. Boundary conditions along the x-y perimeter are periodic. The wall-normal boundary condition options include various wall models which prescribe the surface stresses (for LES), no-slip velocity (for DNS), and stress-free. The default wall-normal configuration is a half-channel (wall model or no-slip at bottom wall, stress-free at the top to mimic a full channel’s center plane), but a full-channel can readily be simulated for many (but not all) combinations of wall model and SGS model and DNS. Solid objects can be represented using a level set immersed boundary method. In addition to the bottom wall, solid surfaces represented by the immersed boundary method also apply a log-law stress boundary condition. For temporal integration, the explicit second-order Adams-Bashforth method is used. Time stepping occurs using either a static time step or CFL-based dynamic time step. Continuity is preserved by solving the pressure Poisson equation using a direct TDMA solver.
The LES flow solver is parallelized with MPI. The flow domain is evenly divided in the vertical (z) direction between the MPI processes. As such, the number of vertical gridpoints (nz) should be evenly divisible by the number of processors (nproc). Each MPI-process has its “own” z-levels indexed by k = 1 to nz-1. The z-levels k = 0 and k = nz are overlap nodes and are only for holding data that has been copied from the process below or above the current one. For the main flow solver, the only overlap data that is required is for the vertical derivatives. Since the spectral discretization occurs along the slab planes, no additional overlap data is required. In the future, it may be advantageous to also decompose the slabs along the y-direction and utilize the parallel FFTW3 MPI library in order to increase scalability for large domains. For the pressure solver, a pipelining technique was chosen to parallelize the TDMA.
The code employs a staggered grid along the vertical direction. This means that not all variables are stored on the same grid. We call the two grids the ‘uv’ grid and the ‘w’ grid, where the grids are distinguished based on the location of the velocity components. The only difference is that the ‘uv’ grid is shift +dz/2 in the vertical direction, where dz is the vertical grid spacing. Also, the ‘w’ grid conforms to the physical domain such that the first grid point lies at z=0 and the last grid point at z=L_z where L_z is the domain height.
The following is a list of the variables and the grid they exist on. The names are the same as found in lesgo.
|Variables||‘uv’ grid||‘w’ grid|
|u, v, p||X|
|dudx, dudy, dvdx, dvdy||X|
|txx, txy, tyy, tzz||X|
When writing data to file the variables are interpolated to the same grid. The statistics may not be on the same grid as the corresponding instantaneous variables above. See section below (“ A) Time Averaged Data “) for notes on which grid each statistic is recorded on.
The output data from lesgo contains two types: 1) restart data and 2) visualization data. Both types are described here. It should be noted that the file names for serial runs will only be listed. In the case of MPI runs some files will be appended with ‘.c<id>’ where <id> is the z-ordered MPI rank used in the simulation. For files where this is applicable, it will be noted by the term ‘MPI appendix’
Below are listed the output files along with a description of their contents. These file use the ‘MPI appendix’
1) vel.out : Contains the core part of the restart data for lesgo. In this file the velocity, right hand side of the momentum equation, and several SGS variables are store. Essentially all the data required from the previous time step or steps is located in these files.
2) tavg.out : Contains the time averaged data from the previous simulation. In this file the running averages of the velocity, Reynolds stress, etc are store here and are used to maintain the averaging between simulations.
The visualization data is located in the directory “output”. The “output” directory is created by making a ‘mkdir’ system call and should work fine on all Unix based systems. By default these file are written in binary formatted files using direct fortran write calls. The output to this directory depends on the settings in the OUTPUT block in the input file “lesgo.conf”. In this section we will discuss the output from the core LES solver of lesgo. All data output from various modules will be discussed in their respective sections.
For large data files, two binary formats can be used: 1) lesgo binary format and 2) CGNS. These files are denoted below with the dummy file extension ‘.ext’. For lesgo binary, the extension will actually be ‘.bin’ and for CGNS the actual extension with ‘.cgns’. For smaller data files, ASCII is used and end with ‘.dat’.
A) Time averaged data on entire domain (these file use the ‘MPI appendix’). Note the comments in brackets  which denote the grid that each statistic is recorded on.
B) Domain Data (these files use the ‘MPI appendix’)
C) Sampled Point Data
D) Data along x-planes (these files use the ‘MPI appendix’)
E) Data along y-planes (these files use the ‘MPI appendix’)
F) Data along z-planes